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Extra info for Application Guide. AG 31-003-1. Chiller Plant Design
On the other hand, the large condenser pump (sized for the design condenser flow) which must operate whenever there is a need for chilled water, has increased the annual pump work. Whether series counterflow will save energy on an annual basis will depend on the pump penalty vs. the chiller savings. System Comparison The previous section covered several common chiller system designs based on constant flow systems. Each system has strengths and weaknesses in terms of design. A key operating parameter is the annual energy usage.
Here are three ways to operate the lag chiller: 1. Set the upstream chiller chilled water setpoint to bring on the chiller once the downstream chiller is fully loaded. This will preferentially load the downstream chiller. The downstream chiller will operate at full load while the upstream chiller will ramp up as the chiller plant load goes from about 45% to 100%. If the downstream chiller is offline for any reason, the upstream chiller will not be able to assume its role unless the chilled water setpoint is changed, either manually or remotely.
This can result in about a 2% improvement in annual chiller energy usage. Where possible, this method is recommended. Staging on the pumps and cooling towers is similar to that outlined for single chillers. Refer to Single Chiller Sequence of Operation, page 39. Series Chiller Plant Example Consider the same model building used in the single chiller example. The series chiller plant is shown in Figure 39. Chiller 58% Chiller 32% Fans 44% Fans 24% Pumps 13% Design Performance Tower 5% Pumps 21% Tower 3% Annual Energy Usage The design load performance is identical to the single or parallel chiller systems.
Application Guide. AG 31-003-1. Chiller Plant Design