By Munenori Takehara, Hideo Hirohara (auth.), Yoshimitsu Hamano (eds.)
Microorganisms are in a position to generating a large choice of biopolymers. Homopolymer peptides, that are made from just a unmarried kind of amino acid, are some distance much less ubiquitous. the single amino-acid homopolymers identified to take place in nature are provided during this quantity. Poly-epsilon-L-lysine is a polycationic peptide and indicates antimicrobial job opposed to a large spectrum of microorganisms. it's either secure and biodegradable and is consequently used as a meals preservative in different international locations. moreover, there was nice curiosity in clinical and different functions of poly-lysine and its derivatives. against this, poly-gamma-glutamic acid is an strange anionic polypeptide. it's also water soluble, biodegradable, fit to be eaten, non-toxic and non-immunogenic and will be chemically changed to introduce a variety of medicinal drugs. those positive factors are very helpful for pharmaceutical and biomedical purposes. Poly-glutamic acid is usually a hugely appealing as nutrition ingredient.
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Additional info for Amino-Acid Homopolymers Occurring in Nature
57 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 Abstract Poly-e-L-lysine (e-poly-L-lysine, e-PL) is used as a food additive on the basis of its strong antimicrobial activity (Fine chem 29:18–25, 2000). e-PL is industrially produced by fermentation process using Streptomyces albulus. Recently, the biosynthetic mechanism (Nat Chem Biol 4:766–772, 2008) and microbial degradation of e-PL (FEMS Microbiol Lett 207:147–151, 2002; Arch Microbiol 178:325–330, 2002; J Biosci Bioeng 96:92–94, 2003; Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 72:173–181, 2006) have been reported.
42 Abstract Streptomyces albulus NBRC14147 (previously named IFO14147) is known to produce the amino-acid homopolymer antibiotic, poly-e-L-lysine (e-polyL-lysine, e-PL), consisting of 25–35 L-lysine residues with a linkage between the a-carboxyl group and the e-amino group. Because e-PL exhibits antimicrobial activity against a wide spectrum of microorganisms, including Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, as well as antiphage activity, and because it is both safe and biodegradable, e-PL has been introduced as a food preservative in Japan, South Korea, Y.
They also purified a membrane protein with six TM-domains, from the membrane fraction of S. albulus NBRC14147, and characterized it as Pls, the biological machinery for e-PL synthesis. Their explorations of Pls resulted in the development of a new model for the generation of chain-length diversity of e-PL products, which integrates traditional NRPS logic, in the form of A- and T-domains, with amino-acid ligase functionality in three tandem domains that show similarity to both acetyltransferases and, through these transferases, traditional C-domains.
Amino-Acid Homopolymers Occurring in Nature by Munenori Takehara, Hideo Hirohara (auth.), Yoshimitsu Hamano (eds.)