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The group would come together at night in a designated place, each member carrying a candle and chanting the names of demons. Upon the arrival of a demon, they would extinguish the candles, and each of them would grab the nearest woman and lie with her, even if she were a relative or a nun. Children born of these illicit unions would be burned, and the ashes were saved and venerated by the members of the sect. 10 Although it is most unlikely that the heretics indulged in the rites described by Paul (especially when it is recalled that the pagan Romans made the same allegations about the early Christians), the author of the account felt it necessary to include an incrimination of this kind, just as Ademar had done in regard to the same heretics, and just as the Inquisitors and the chroniclers of later heresy would demonise the heretics they faced.

The new faith rejected many basic doctrines of the ‘orthodox’ Church, several of which had also been repudiated by the Bogomils. The heretics of Orléans proposed a Docetist Christology. Christ, they told Arefast, was not born of the Virgin Mary; he did not suffer and die on the cross and did not rise from the dead in the flesh. Baptism did not cleanse the soul of sin and the sacrament of the Eucharist was worthless. Stephen and Lisois rejected the martyrs and confessors and denied the validity of all the teachings of the Church.

Moreover, Stephen and Lisois taught doctrines which, as some modern commentators have suggested, echoed the teachings of Bogomil, and one contemporary described them as Manichaeans, suggesting that they were dualist Christians like the Bogomils. These heretical leaders also advocated many of the important themes that would characterise the popular heresies of the future, but at the same time their group comprised a clerical elite which in some ways foreshadowed the academic heresies of the later Middle Ages.

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Aichi D3A (Val), Yokosuka D4Y (Judy)

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