By Viacheslav A. Chirikba
Abkhaz is among the 3 languages comprising the Abkhazo-Adyghean, or West Caucasian department of North Caucasian linguistic kinfolk (the different department being Nakh-Daghestanian, or East Caucasian). Abkhaz is spoken via nearly 100,000 humans within the former Soviet union (mainly within the Republic of Abkhazia, Caucasus), and through a minimum of a similar variety of audio system in Turkey and a few center east nations (small Abkhaz colonies are available additionally in Western Europe and the USA). Abkhaz is infamous for its large consonantal stock (up to sixty seven consonants in its Bzyp dialect) and by means of its minimum vocalic method: simply vowels. notwithstanding Abkhaz was once studied by way of a couple of students (among whom P. Uslar in XIX century, or extra simply ok. Lomtatidze in Georgia and G. Hewitt in nice Britain), many features of Abkhaz grammar (especially its syntax) nonetheless must be accurately defined. Abkhaz is the one West Caucasian language to own the class of grammatical sessions, manifested in own pronouns, verb conjugation, numerals and in class of quantity. Abkhaz is an ergative language, the ergative development being represented now not through case endings, as in similar Circassian and Ubykh (Abkhaz doesn't have the case system), yet by way of order of actant markers. The verbal root is composed frequently of 1 consonant, preceded through a string of prefixes (class-personal, directional, temporal, negational, causative, etc.) and by means of few suffixes. Verbs might be stative or dynamic, finite or non-finite. The grammatical caricature of Abkhaz comprises information regarding its phonological procedure, morphology, and syntax. a quick textual content is supplied with grammatical reviews.
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Additional info for Abkhaz
A clause can be finite or non-finite. A finite clause contains a finite verb and can function as (a) a fully-fledged sentence, (b) as one of the finite clauses in a compound sentence, (c) as a main clause in a complex sentence, (d) as an embedded clause in the reported speech construction. a. q"'aMjna ma bzap 'the Kubina or the Bzyp (rivers)'. b. ma sari, ma wani 'either I, or you'. mzar, ak"'amzar 'if not, or'. 3. Apposition. ' 'the Zhwandrypsh village', apshi Lewan 'king Leon'. 'il [xac'a r"r 0a-k'l da-q'a-n, Nart-PL their-brother man strong he-be-PAST 'There was a strong man, the brother of the Narts, called Dyd'.
2. roIMPER! ' . Unlike positive imperatives, in prohibitions formed from transitive verbs the 2" p. sg. marker is not deleted. ' . '. ' . (69) jari (sari) (ja-)s-i-j-h 0a-e·:fl' wax' da-s-ca-wi+z he there he-how-go-IMPRF:NFIN 'He told me that he was going there'. me d-aa-Ja-wli-m e-ii-s-h a-e-jt~ h 0a it-me-to-he-tell-AOR-DYN :FIN 0 (s)he-come-EMPH-PRES:DYN-NEG QUOT it-hirn-to-1-say-AOR-DYN:FIN 'I told him that (s)he will not come' . 3. Reportative Verb. , the verb a-h 0a-ra is always in Aorist, usually in 3'd p.
As an example a story can be cited about a person who gained power over a mermaid by cutting off and hiding a lock of her hair. The verb forms used are non-inferential until the narrator comes to an important remark that the person's little daughter saw where her father hid the mermaid's hair: (82) a-x 0ac"a ja-1-bi-zaap~ ART-child it-she-see-INFER! 'The child, as it turned out, saw it' (Anshba 1995: 79). cally important, as this knowledge led to a dramatic consequence: cunningly, the ~ermrud makes the nal've child tell her the whereabouts of her hair, takes possession of it, kills the child and disappears.
Abkhaz by Viacheslav A. Chirikba